The first written mention of the city belongs to 1067. For the history Minsk it was destroyed and restored tens times. Most of all the city was damaged during World War II when it was destroyed almost completely.
The largest river flowing across the territory of the city is Svisloch. In city boundaries six more smaller rivers flow into it. The height difference of the territory in which the city is located, makes 96 meters. Such difficult relief is caused by an arrangement on a height and existence in the territory of two lowlands. The city is surrounded with the woods, which most part — coniferous.
Today Minsk – the modern European city, the largest in the country. Here live 2,002,600 people. The city has excellent transport means of communication, including the airport, the large railway station, some bus stations. In Minsk the subway works, the city motor transportation system is well developed.
Residents of Minsk live in conditions of moderate and continental climate on which the Atlantic sea air has considerable impact. This influence is expressed in frequent cyclones. In the winter thaw is quite often observed. The summer is characterized by rather warm, but not hot weather. In the city prevalence of the western winds with an average speed of 4,3 m/s is noted. Air in Minsk possesses the increased humidity, in separate months (generally in the winter) reaching 90%.
The number of cloudy days for 10% exceeds quantity of the solar. For the city fogs and smokes are very characteristic. In a year 646 mm of rainfall, 75% from them liquid drop out, other share is evenly divided between firm and mixed. Active functioning of the industry influences not only a condition of ecology of the city, but also climate. So, average daily temperature is 0,2-0,6 °C higher practically all year, than in the region outside the city. The same situation and with other indicators – humidity is lower, than in the region, the number of dry days — is more.
The fauna of Minsk is rather various and presented more than twenty species of mammals, ten types amphibious, a great number of insects, 102 bird species. In the territory of the city there are large reserves of fresh waters. It allows to provide inhabitants with good drinking water. At a depth up to 300 meters extract table water, to 450 meters – the medical and dining room applied to internal treatment, and is deeper – medical with high degree of a mineralization, used for medical bathtubs.
In the Minsk region there are 252 habitats of 367 species of wild animals and 245 places of growth of 60 species of the wild-growing plants included in the Red List of Republic of Belarus. In area there are habitats of such rare species as a marsh turtle (Kopylsky, Soligorsk areas), a cane toad (the Smolevichsky area), a halcyon (The Minsk area), a ruchyevy trout (Volozhinsky, Slutsky areas). The bison European lives in Borisovsky and Volozhinsky areas. 58 species of fish (a catfish, an eel, the bream, an ide, a pike, a tench, a burbot, etc.), including three views from five included in the Red List of Republic of Belarus live in reservoirs of area: trout ruchyevy, grayling ordinary and (Maron’s) man with a big mustache.